Bruennhilde: Wotan's/Siegfried's unconscious Part B-4

General Discussion about Wagner and The Ring of the Nibelung

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Bruennhilde: Wotan's/Siegfried's unconscious Part B-4

Postby alberich00 » Sat Jan 28, 2017 11:48 am

[P. 430] {FEUER} [re Ludwig Feuerbach’s book Thoughts on Death and Immortality,
Wagner states that:] “The absorbing questions treated here … as if it were the first
time they had ever been raised, had occupied me ever since my initial association
with Lehrs in Paris, just as they occupy the mind of every serious and imaginative
person … . The frankness which Feuerbach finally finds the courage to adopt in the
mellower parts of his book, in treating these deeply interesting questions, pleased
me greatly, as much for its tragic implications as for its social radicalism. I found
it elevating and consoling to be assured that the sole authentic immortality adheres
only to sublime deeds and inspired works of art. (…) … Feuerbach became for me
the proponent of the ruthlessly radical liberation of the individual from the bond-
age of conceptions associated with the belief in traditional authority, and the initiat-
ed will therefore understand why I prefaced my book The Artwork of the Future
with a dedication and an introduction addressed to him. (…) [P. 431] The fact that
he proclaimed what we call “spirit” to lie in our aesthetic perceptions of the tang-
ible world, together with his verdict as to the futility of philosophy, was what
afforded me such useful support in my conception of a work of art which would be
all-embracing while remaining comprehensible to the simplest, purely human
power of discernment, that is, of the drama made perfect at the moment of its
realization of every artistic intention in ‘the art-work of the future’ … . Admittedly,
after only a short time it became impossible for me to return to his works, and I
recall that one of his books appearing shortly thereafter entitled On the Essence of
Religion scared me off by the monotony of its title alone to such an extent that,
when Herwegh opened its pages in front of me, I closed the book with a bang
before his very eyes.” [387W-{?/49} ML: p. 430-431]


[P. 320] {FEUER} “(The state of Innocence could not come to men’s
consciousness until they had lost it. This yearning back thereto, the struggle for its
re-attainment, is the soul of the whole movement of civilisation since ever we
learnt to know the men of legend and of history. It is the impulse to depart from a
generality that seems hostile to us, to arrive at egoistic satisfaction in ourselves
…).” [393W-{1-2/49} Jesus of Nazareth: PW Vol. VIII. p. 320]


[P. 339] {FEUER} “The first man, Adam, is sent into natural life, and the last Adam into spiritual life. But the spiritual body is not the first, but the natural, and afterward the spiritual.” [396W-{1-2/49} Jesus of Nazareth: PW Vol. VIII. p. 339]


[P. 230] {FEUER} The Existing has a mighty empire over man. Our Established Society has a terrible power over us, for it has deliberately arrested the growth of our strength. The strength for this holy war can come to us from nothing save perception of the worthlessness of our Society. When we have clearly recognised how our existing Society disowns its task, how violently and often craftily it withholds [P. 231] us from our mission, our right, our happiness, we shall have won the force to fight, to conquer it. [397W-{2/49} Man and Established Society: PW Vol. VIII, p. 230-231]


[P. 34] {FEUER} “To see the most pregnant of all tragedies, the ‘Prometheus’, came they; in this Titanic masterpiece to see the image of themselves, to read the riddle of their own actions … .” [402W-{6-8/49} Art and Revolution: PW Vol. I, p. 34]


[P. 35] {FEUER} “Or else it was, that Art entered on the service of one or other of those abstract ideas or even conventions which, now lighter and now more heavily, weighed down a suffering humanity and cast in fetters the freedom both of individuals and communities. But never more was she the free expression of a free community. Yet true Art is highest freedom, and only the highest freedom can bring her forth from out itself; no [P. 36] commandment, no ordinance, No aim apart from Art, can call her to arise.” [403W-{6-8/49} Art and Revolution: PW Vol. I, p. 35-36]


[P. 51] {FEUER} “Yet Art remains in its essence what it ever was; we have only to say, that it is not present in our modern public system. It lives, however, and has ever lived in the individual conscience, as the one, fair, indivisible Art. Thus the only difference is this: with the Greeks it lived in the public conscience, whereas to-day it lives alone in the conscience of private persons, the public un-conscience recking nothing of it. Therefore in its flowering time the Grecian Art was conservative, because it was a worthy and adequate expression of the public conscience: with us, [P. 52] true Art is revolutionary, because its very existence is opposed to the ruling spirit of the community.
(…) Aeschylus is the very type of this conservatism, and his loftiest work of conservative art is the ‘Oresteia’ … .” [408W-{6-8/49} Art and Revolution: PW Vol. I, p. 51-52]


[P. 57] {FEUER} “Let us glance, then, for a moment at this future state of Man, when he shall have freed himself from his last heresy, the denial of Nature, -- that heresy which has taught him hitherto to look upon himself as a mere instrument to an end which lay outside himself. When Mankind knows, at last, that itself is the one and only object of its existence, and that only in the community of all men can this purpose be fulfilled … . (…) This Heavenly Father will then be no other than the social wisdom of mankind, taking Nature and her fulness for the common weal of all.” [410W-{6-8/49} Art and Revolution: PW Vol. I, p. 57]


[P. 59] {FEUER} “If history shows an actual Utopia, a truly unattainable ideal, it is that of Christendom; for it has clearly and plainly shown … that its dogmas are not realisable. How could those dogmas become really living, and pass over into actual life: when they were directed against life itself, and denied and cursed the principle of living? Christianity is of purely spiritual, and super-spiritual contents; it preaches humility, [P. 60] renunciation, contempt of every earthly thing; and amid this contempt – Brotherly Love! (…) {FEUER} Whence comes this shocking contradiction between the ideal and its fulfilment? Even hence: that the ideal was morbid, engendered of the momentary relaxing and enfeeblement of human nature, and sinned against its inbred robust qualities. Yet how strong this nature is, how unquenchable its ever fresh, productive fulness – it has shown all the more plainly under the universal incubus of that ideal; which, if its logical consequences had been fulfilled, would have completely swept the human race from off the earth; since even abstinence from sexual love was included in it as the height of virtue.” [412W-{6-8/49} Art and Revolution: PW Vol. I, p. 59-60]


[P. 69] {FEUER} “As Man stands to Nature, so stands Art to Man. When Nature had developed in herself those attributes which included the conditions for the existence of Man, then Man spontaneously evolved. In like manner, as soon as human life had engendered from itself the conditions for the manifestment of Art-work, this too stepped self-begotten into life.
{FEUER} Nature engenders her myriad forms without caprice or arbitrary aim (‘absichtlos und unwillkuerlich’), according to her need (‘Beduerfniss’), and therefore of Necessity (‘Nothwendigkeit’). This same Necessity is the generative and formative force of human life. [413W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 69]


[P. 70] {FEUER} From the moment when Man perceived the difference between himself and Nature, and thus commenced his own development as man, by breaking loose from the unconsciousness of natural animal life and passing over into conscious life, -- when he thus looked Nature in the face and from the first feelings of his dependence on her, thereby aroused, evolved the faculty of Thought, --- from that moment did Error begin, as the earliest utterance of consciousness. But Error is the mother of Knowledge, and the history of the birth of Knowledge out of Error is the history of the human race, from the myths of primal ages down to the present day.
{FEUER} Man erred, from the time when he set the cause of Nature’s workings outside the bounds of Nature’s self, and for the physical phenomena subsumed a super-physical, anthropomorphic, and arbitrary cause; when he took the endless harmony of her unconscious, instinctive energy for the arbitrary demeanour of disconnected finite forces. Knowledge consists in the laying of this error, in fathoming the Necessity of phenomena whose underlying basis had appeared to us Caprice.
{FEUER} Through this knowledge does Nature grow conscious of herself; and verily by Man himself, who only through discriminating between himself and Nature has attained that point where he can apprehend her, by making her his ‘object.’ But this distinction is merged once more when Man recognises the essence of Nature as his very own, and perceives the same Necessity in all the elements and lives around him, and therefore in his own existence no less [P. 71] than in Nature’s being; thus not only recognising the mutual bond of union between all natural phenomena, but also his own community with Nature. [414W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 70-71]


[P. 71] {FEUER} If Nature then, by her solidarity with Man, attains in Man her consciousness, and if Man’s life is the very activation of this consciousness – as it were, the portraiture in brief of Nature, -- so does man’s Life itself gain understanding by means of Science, which makes this human life in turn an object of experience. But the activation of the consciousness attained by Science, the portrayal of the Life that it has learnt to know, the impress of this life’s Necessity and Truth, is – Art. [415W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 71]


[P. 72] {FEUER} Whilst Man involuntarily moulds his Life according to the notions he has gathered from his arbitrary views of Nature, and embalms their intuitive expression in Religion: these notions become for him in Science the subject of conscious, intentional review and scrutiny.
{FEUER} The path of Science lies from error to knowledge, from fancy {‘Vorstellung’) to reality, from Religion to Nature. [417W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 72]


[P. 72] {FEUER} {anti-FEUER} Science takes over the arbitrary concepts of the human brain, in their totality; while, by her side, Life follows in its totality the instinctive evolution of Necessity. Science thus bears the burden of the sins of Life, and expiates them by her own self-abrogation; she ends in her direct antithesis, in the knowledge of Nature, in the recognition of the unconscious, instinctive, and therefore real, inevitable, and physical. (…)
{FEUER} {anti-FEUER} The end of Science is the justifying of the Unconscious, the giving of self-consciousness to Life, the re-instatement of the Senses in their perceptive rights, the sinking of [P. 73] Caprice in the world-Will (‘Wollen’) of Necessity [i.e., the willing of Necessity; Ellis had no justification for translating ‘Wollen’ as ‘world-Will’]. Science is therefore the vehicle of Knowledge … ; but Life is the great ultimate, a law unto itself. As Science melts away into the recognition of the ultimate and self-determinate reality, of actual Life itself: so does this avowal win its frankest, most direct expression in Art, or rather in the Work of Art.
{FEUER} The actual Art-work, i.e., its immediate physical portrayal, in the moment of its liveliest embodiment, is therefore the only true redemption of the artist; the uprootal of the final trace of busy, purposed choice; the confident determination of what was hitherto a mere imagining; the enfranchisement of thought in sense … .
{FEUER} The Art-work, thus conceived as an immediate vital act, is therewith the perfect reconcilement of Science with Life, the laurel-wreath which the vanquished, redeemed by her defeat, reaches in joyous homage to her acknowledged victor. [418W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 72-73]


[P. 73] {FEUER} The redemption of Thought and Science and their transmutation in Artwork would be impossible, could Life [P. 74] itself be made dependent upon scientific speculation. Could conscious autocratic Thought completely govern Life, could it usurp the vital impulse and divert it to some other purpose than the great Necessity of absolute life-needs: then were Life itself dethroned, and swallowed up in Science. (…)
{anti-FEUER} The great instinctive errors of the People – which found their earliest utterance in Religion, and then became the starting points of arbitrary speculation and system-making, in Theology and Philosophy – have reared themselves, in these Sciences and their coadjutrix and adopted sister, Statecraft, to powers which make no less a claim than to govern and ordain the world and life by virtue of their innate and divine infallibility. Irrevocably, then, would Error reign in destructive triumph throughout eternity: did not the same life-force which blindly bore it, once more effectually annihilate it, by virtue of its innate, natural Necessity; and that so decisively and palpably, that Intellect, with all its arrogant divorce from Life, can see at last no other refuge from actual insanity, than in the unconditional acknowledgment of this only definite and visible force. And this vital force is – the Folk (das Volk).
[P. 75] {FEUER} The ‘Folk’ is the epitome of all those men who feel a common and collective Want (‘gemeinschaftliche Noth’).” [419W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 73-75]


[P. 76] {Pre-SCHOP} {FEUER} “ Luxury is as heartless, inhuman, insatiable, and egoistic as the ‘need’ which called it forth, but which, with all its heaping-up and overreaching, it never more can still. For this need itself is no natural and therefore
satisfiable one; by very reason that, being false, it has no true, essential antithesis in which it may be spent, consumed, and satisfied. (…) … it racks, devours, torments and burns, without an instant’s stilling; it leaves brain, heart and sense for ever vainly searching, and swallows up all gladness, mirth, and joy of life. For sake of one sole, and yet unreachable moment of refreshment, it squanders the toil and life-sweat of a thousand needy wanters; it lives upon the unstilled hunger of a thousand poor, though impotent to satiate its own for but the twinkling of an eye; it holds a whole world within the iron chains of despotism, without the power to momentarily break the golden chains of that arch-tyrant which it is unto itself.
{FEUER} And this fiend, this crack-brained need-without-a-need, this need of
Need, this need of Luxury … is sovereign of the world. It is the soul of that
Industry which deadens men, to turn them to [P. 77] machines; the soul of our State
which swears away men’s honour … ; the soul of our deistic Science, which hurls
men down before an immaterial God, the product of the sum of intellectual luxury,
for its consumption.” [421W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p.
76-77]


[P. 79] {FEUER} It is in the reproduction of this great evolutionary process of Nature in Man himself, that the human race, from the time of its first self-severance from Nature, is thus involved. The same necessity is the mainspring of the great revolution of mankind; the same assuagement will bring this revolution to a close.
{FEUER} But that impelling force, the plain and innate force of Life which vindicates itself in life-needs, is unconscious and instinctive by its very nature; and where it is this – in the Folk – it also is the only true, conclusive might. [424W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 79]


[P. 80] {FEUER} “… the march of human evolution is the rational and natural progress from the unconscious to the conscious, from un-knowledge to knowledge, from need to satisfying … .” [426W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 80]


[P. 90] {FEUER} “The Art-work is the living presentation of Religion; -- but religions spring not from the artist’s brain; their only origin is from the Folk.” [429W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 90]


[P. 91] {FEUER} “Man’s nature is twofold, an outer and an inner. The senses to which he offers himself as a subject for Art, are those of Vision and of Hearing: to the eye appeals the outer man, the inner to the ear.
(…) … the more distinctly can the outer man express the inner, the higher does he show his rank as an artistic being.
{FEUER} But the inner man can only find direct communication through the ear, and that by means of his voice’s Tone. Tone is the immediate utterance of feeling and has its physical seat within the heart, whence start and whither flow the waves of life-blood.” [430W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 91]


[P. 94] {FEUER} “But the most conditioned faculty is at like time the most exalted; and the joy in his own self, engendered by the knowledge of his higher, unsurpassable attributes, betrays the intellectual-man into the arrogant imagining that he may use those attributes which are really his foundation-props as the handmaids of his own caprice.” [432W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 94]


[P. 110] {FEUER} “Through the heart the understanding feels itself allied with the whole body, and the man of mere ‘five-senses’ mounts upwards to the energy of Reason.
{FEUER} But the organ of the heart is tone; its conscious speech, the art of Tone. She is the full and flowing heart-love, that ennobles the material sense of pleasure, and humanises immaterial thought. Through Tone are Dance and [P. 111] Poetry brought to mutual understanding; in her are intercrossed in loving blend the laws by which they each proclaim their own true nature; in her, the wilfulness of each becomes instinctive ‘Will’ (‘Unwillkuerlichen’) … .” [434W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 110-111]


[P. 113] {FEUER} “The Greek, when he took ship upon his sea, ne’er let the coast line fade from sight … . (…)
{FEUER} The Christian left the shores of Life. – Farther afield, beyond all confines, he sought the sea, -- to find himself at last upon the Ocean, twixt sea and heaven, boundlessly [P. 114] alone. The Word … of Faith was his only compass; and it pointed him unswervingly toward Heaven. (…) But the sailor never reached that confine; from century to century he floated on without redemption, towards this ever imminent, but never reached, new home; until he fell a-doubting of the virtue of his compass, and cast it, as the last remaining human bauble, grimly overboard. And now, denuded of all ties, he gave himself without a rudder to the never-ending turmoil of the waves’ caprice. In unstilled, ireful love-rage, he stirred the waters of the sea against the unattainable and distant heaven: he urged the insatiate greed of that desire and love which, reft of an external object, must ever only crave and love itself, -- that deepest, unredeemable hell of restless Egoism, which stretches out without an end, and wills and wishes, yet ever and forever can only wish and will itself, -- he urged it against the abstract universalism of heaven’s blue, that universal longing without the shadow of an ‘object’ – against the very vault of absolute un-objectivity. Bliss, unconditioned bliss, -- to gain in widest, most unbounded measure the height of bliss, and yet to stay completely wrapt in self: this was the unallayable desire of Christian passion. So reared the sea from out its deepest depth to heaven, so sank it ever back again to its own depths; ever its unmixed self, and therefore ever unappeased, -- like the all-usurping, measureless desire of the heart that ne’er will give itself and dare to be consumed in an external object, but damns itself to everlasting selfish solitude.
{FEUER} Yet in Nature each immensity strives after Measure … . [437W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 113-114]


[P. 138] {FEUER} “… Thought, the highest and most conditioned faculty of artistic man, had cut itself adrift from fair warm Life, whose yearning had begotten and sustained it, as from a hemming, fettering bond that clogged its own unbounded freedom: -- so deemed the Christian yearning, and believed that it must break away from physical man, to spread in heaven’s boundless aether to freest waywardness. But this very severance was to teach that thought and this desire how inseparable they were from human nature’s being: how high soever they might soar into the air, they still could do this in the form of bodily man alone. In sooth, they could not take the carcass with them, bound as it was by laws of gravitation; but they managed to abstract a vapoury emanation, which instinctively took on again the form and bearing of the human body. Thus hovered in the air the Poet’s Thought, like a human-outlined cloud that spread its shadow over actual, bodily earth-life, to which it evermore looked down; and into which it needs must long to shed itself, just as from earth alone it sucked its steaming vapours. (…) [P. 139] So should the Poet’s thought once more impregnate Life; no longer spread its idle canopy of cloud twixt Life and Light.
{FEUER} What Poetry perceived from that high seat, was after all but Life: the higher did she raise herself, the more panoramic became her view; but the wider the connection in which she was now enabled to grasp the parts, the livelier arose in her the longing to fathom the depths of this great whole. Thus Poetry turned to Science, to Philosophy. To the struggle for a deeper knowledge of Nature and of Man, we stand indebted for that copious store [Hoard?, i.e. Hort?] of literature whose kernel is the poetic musing (gedankenhaftes Dichten) which speaks to us in Human – and in Natural – History, and in Philosophy. (…) But the deepest and most universal science can, at the last, know nothing else but Life itself; and the substance and the sense of Life are naught but Man and Nature. Science, therefore, can only gain her perfect confirmation in the work of Art; in that work which takes both Man and Nature – in so far as the latter attains her consciousness in Man – and shows them forth directly. Thus the consummation of Knowledge is its redemption into Poetry; into that poetic art, however, which marches hand in hand with her sister arts towards the perfect Artwork; -- and this artwork is none other than the Drama.” [439W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 138-139]


[P. 207] {FEUER} “If we have finally proved that the Folk must of necessity be the Artist of the future, we must be prepared to see the intellectual egoism of the artists of the Present break forth in contemptuous amazement at the discovery. They forget completely that in the days of national blood-brotherhood, which preceded the epoch when the absolute Egoism of the individual was elevated to a religion, -- the days which our historians betoken as those of prehistoric myth and fable, -- the Folk, in truth, was already the only poet, the only artist; that all their matter, and all their form if it is to have any sound vitality – they can derive alone from the fancy of these art-inventive peoples” [441W-{9-12/49} The Artwork of the Future: PW Vol. I, p. 207]


[P. 251] {FEUER} “Just as we know that there are heavenly bodies which have not as yet, or never will have, attained the birth of those conditions fundamentally necessary to the existence of human beings: so do we know that at one time our own Earth, also, had not as yet evolved such attributes. (…) Only where this ‘Climate’ resolves the fixed and all-dominating uniformity of its influence into a [P. 252] pliant chain of broken contrasts, do we see arise that infinitely manifold series of organic creations whose highest grade is conscience-gifted Man.” [446W-{2/50} Art and Climate: PW Vol. I, p. 251-252]


[P. 252] {FEUER} “Yet where Climatic Nature draws Man beneath the all-sheltering influence of her rankest prodigality, and rocks him in her bosom as a mother rocks her child, -- where we must therefore place the cradle of newborn mankind: -- there has Man remained a child forever – as in the Tropics, -- with all an infant’s good and evil qualities. First where she drew this all-conditioning, over-tender influence back, when she handed Man, like a prudent mother her adult son, to himself and his own free self-devisings, -- where Man, then, mid the waning warmth of the directly fostering care of Climate, was forced to cater for himself, -- do we see him ripening to the full unfoldment of his being. Only through the force of such a Need as surrounding Nature did not, like an over-careful mother, both listen for and still at once ere it had scarcely risen, but for whose appeasement he must himself provide, did he gain consciousness not only of that need but also of his power. This consciousness he reached through learning the distinction between himself and Nature; and thus it was that she, who no more offered him the stilling of his need, but from whom he now must wrest it, became the object of his observation, inquiry, and dominion.
{FEUER} The progress of the human race in the development of its innate capabilities of winning from Nature the contentment of those needs that waxed with its ever-waxing powers, is the history of Culture. In it Man evolves his own qualities in counterpoise to Nature, and thus acquires independence of her.” [447W-{2/50} Art and Climate: PW Vol. I, p. 252]
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