H#154 = S153AB = D#151 (Hagen. A variant of S152A. S153B is Hagen’s definitive tritone.)
H#155 = D#152 - S omits (Gunther.) Is S#152B supposed to be the portion of the generic Gibichung Motif linked to Gunther?
S154 = D#156ab? (Gutrune’s first motif.) Dunning’s musical notation doesn’t seem to match Scruton’s for either part of Gutrune’s motif.
H#156 = S155 = D#153 (Gutrune’s second motif: seduction.)
H#157 = S156 = D#154 (Forgetting) But Hagen’s Potion Motif is also associated with his antidote to the Motif of Forgetting, so it would be safer to call it Hagen’s Potion(s). There is of course a separate Motif of Remembrance, S183, which Dunning omitted because he construed it either as a variant of D#139 = S139, or as an inversion of part of the three part D#174abc = S181(A). Hagen’s Potion, and therefore the conceptual significance of D#154 = S156, must be grasped in its totality, both as forgetting and remembrance, as the instrument of Hagen’s quest to compel Siegfried to remember who he is, and to stab Siegfried in the back with this knowledge, with a memory of the past long forgotten. D#154 stems originally from Loge’s Motif D#35, which is the basis for D#100, the Magic Fire Music, but also of the two Tarnhelm Motifs D#42 and D#43. This whole family of motifs is linked with Wagner’s concept of the “Wonder,” and therefore with Wagner’s musical motifs as agents of remembrance and foreboding. A key to their significance: Wagner stated not only that for the authentic artist his art may remain as much a mystery to him as to his audience, but he also said that by virtue of the wonder of his musical motifs he could make his audience fellow-knowers of the artist’s profoundest secret, a secret obviously which might remain unconscious even for him.
H#158 = S157 = D#155 (Gibichung Hospitality Motif. One of the many uses of the falling fifth, representing Gunther and Gutrune, and the falling tritone representing Hagen.) I call it False Friendship, and believe its embryos, like those of the other characteristic Gibichung motifs, and Gunther’s Motif, may lie in some of Mime’s musical tropes from the first two acts of “Siegfried.”
S158 - D omits (A motif related to S157, called Guest-friendship.)
H#159ab = S159 = D#156a (Gutrune in seductive mode. Variant of S158) & S159A = D#156b (Gutrune motifs, derived from S159)
S160 - D omits (Siegfried rowing, amalgamation of S14 = [D#13 & D#15] and S104 = D#103.) It also includes D#59a = S53A. This musical amalgamation is, mysteriously, one of the most inexplicably moving passages in the entire “Ring.” It must have something to do with the pathos of the inevitable self-destruction of an ideal world, and that this ideal is moving towards its destruction by rowing against the natural current up the Rhine River in which the “Ring” cycle began, just as Wotan as the Wanderer wore his hat against the wind.
H#160 = S161A = D#157 (First Bloodbrotherhood Oath Motif)
H#161 = S161B = D#158 (Second Bloodbrotherhood Oath Motif)
S161C = (Bloodbrotherhood oath: one of three motifs)
H#162 = S163 = D#159 (Oath of atonement. A descending third motif, like S63 = D#68, and S115. Linked with Fricka’s vigilance.) Cooke states S163 and S63 stem from one half of the Ring Motif D#19.
H#163 = D#160 - S omits. Part of the bloodbrotherhood oath sworn by Siegfried and Gunther: (D#160:) Faith I drink to my friend (:D#160) … .”
S162A - D omits (Oath motif associated with the octave drop re Nothung)
H#164ab = S164 = D#161ab (Hagen’s Watch Motif. Derived from S14 = [D#13 and D#15] via S39 = D#45.
H#165ab = S165 = D#162ab (Hagen’s envy.)
S166 - D omits, but it’s a D#95 variation (Diminished version of S93; Valkyrie motif given to Waltraute and Bruennhilde.)
H#166 = S167 possibly = D#163? (Bruennhilde’s longing to be reconciled with Wotan) I suspect that S167 = D#163, but it’s difficult to match Scruton’s musical notation precisely with Dunning’s. I think Scruton chooses to emphasize a different portion of this complex motif. At any rate, D#163 is definitely associated with Bruennhilde’s expression to Waltraute of her hope that Wotan is reconciled with her in T.P3A.
H#167 = S168 = Definitive D#115 (The logs of the World Ash Tree, piled ready for the conflagration. The bass taken from S114 = D#115.)
H#168 = S169 = D#164 (Bruennhilde’s anger. related to S76 = S81) via S136 and S136A = D#137AB. S179A = Definitive D#164 (Bruennhilde’s anger. Full version of S169.) D#81A = S76, the baroque variant of the D#21 = S19 Spear Motif associated with Wotan’s ultimate recognition that his beloved hero Siegmund is not the free hero he supposed, is the basis for the motif which represents Siegfried’s fear of waking Bruennhilde, D#137 = S136(A) (Siegfried fears waking Bruennhilde because she possesses the secret knowledge, which Wotan feared to speak aloud, stored in her by Wotan during his confession, of Wotan’s, and thus Siegfried’s, true, prosaic identity), and ultimately of D#164 = S169 & S179AB, the motif which expresses Bruennhilde’s despairing recognition that the bliss she thought she’d won through Siegfried’s love was in the long run transformed into the ultimate expression of Wotan’s punishment of her for living for love when he’d given up on it, and given up on hope of redemption from Alberich’s Ring curse. S179B = variant of D#164 (Hagen’s tritone joined to Bruennhilde’s anger joined to Gunther’s fifth: bass figure in the betrayal scene and frequently thereafter.)
H#169 = S162B = D#165 (Honour. Extension of S162A)
H#170 = S170 = D#166 (Hagen’s brooding.)
H#171 = S171 = D#167 (Murder Motif, first heard when Alberich raises with Hagen the prospect of inheriting the world from Wotan.) If I’m remembering correctly Cooke derived D#167 from a part of the Ring Motif D#19, or at least found Ring Motif harmony in it.
H#172 = S172AB = D#168ab (Dawn on the Rhine. S172B associated with Grim Hagen, takes on life of its own.)
H#173 = S173 = D#169 (Gutrune’s welcome.) There seems to be a family resemblance between S173 and the upper line - above the harmony - of D#123 = S121A. D#123 is associated with Mime planning to destroy Siegfried by using a potion, which he brews as Siegfried is re-forging Nothung while expressing a lot of metaphorical sexual imagery. Nothung is a sort of phallus, as explained by Bruennhilde when she describes herself as its scabbard in T.2.4. Gutrune does indeed destroy Siegfried with a potion.
H#174 = S175 = D#170ab (Hagen’s summons to the vassals.) A variant of S9 = D#5.
H#175 = S174 = D#171 (Gibichung Horncall/Home Motif. Variant of S159 = D#156, both stemming from S157 = D#155.)
H#176 = S176 = D#172 (The Gibichung Vassals) respond to Hagen’s summons by horn.
S177 - D omits, but it’s a loose D#171 variant (Wedding march, based loosely on S174 = D#171.)
S178 - D omits, but it’s a D#165 variant (Betrayal. Related to S162B = D#165)
H#177 = S180 = D#173 (The oath on Hagen’s spear. Fifth and tritone prominent, the ‘curse chord’ in the accompaniment.)
H#178 = D#150/D#15 - S omits: This compound motif should be a distinct numbered motif. It is highly expressive and is associated multiple times in T.2.5 with Bruennhilde’s remarks that secretly, unbeknownst to Siegfried, she protects him magically from receiving wounds at the front, i.e., from foreknowledge (Prometheus), but didn’t protect him at his back (from remembrance) because he would never, in fear, turn his back to the enemy. Hagen exploits this formerly hidden knowledge to give Siegfried his death blow, with a remembrance of things past, because it’s actually Siegfried’s remembrance of who he really is that kills him. One key passage is the following: Bruennhilde: “(D#150 variant = S151/D#15 variant = S14A:) Not a single art was known to me that did not help to keep his body safe (:S14A/S151). (D#141 = S141:) Unknown to him, he was tamed by my magic spells (:S141) (Vocal passage used later in “Parsifal”:) which ward him now against wounds.” D#141 in S.3.3 captured the notion that Bruennhilde is Siegfried’s self, and knows for him what he doesn’t know, his true identity. By betraying her, by revealing her secrets she kept even from him, he makes himself vulnerable to the rise to consciousness of a fatal remembrance of things past. Alberich’s and Wotan’s (Light-Alberich’s) Hoard of knowledge rises to consciousness within him, now that he’s betrayed his unconscious mind and muse of inspiration, as Alberich foresaw when in R.3 he warned Wotan and Loge that one day his Nibelung hoard would rise from the silent night to day and his host of night would storm Valhalla.
H#179 = S181 = D#174ab (The Rhinedaughters’ second lament for the lost Rhinegold.)
S181A = D#174c (Third/fourth parts of the Rhinedaughters’ second lament for the lost Rhinegold.)
D#175 - S omits: final variant of the Rhinedaughters’ jubilant swimming music based on D#14 from R.1. It probably need not be considered a distinct motif.
H#180 = S182 = D#176 (Siegfried Lost.) S182 reflects the fact that Alberich’s curse has diverted Siegfried from his true path as an unconsciously inspired artist-hero. Siegfried has now become too conscious to be able to obtain redemption from his muse Bruennhilde’s love or to offer his redemption to others through his formerly inspired art. He’s lost his way back to Bruennhilde, the way once shown him by his guide the Woodbird. Siegfried tells the Rhinedaughters that an elf diverted him from his path so he lost his game. This elf (Albe) may well be Alberich, thanks to whose Ring curse of consciousness Siegfried now can no longer access his muse of unconscious artistic inspiration Bruenhhilde, who granted him a gift he’s now forgotten. The Rhinedaughters offer to give him his game (Siegfried, unbeknownst to himself, is the game being hunted by conspirators Gunther and Hagen in this hunt, i.e., consciousness of his true identity, which includes his true relationship with his muse Bruennhilde, whom he’s forgotten) if he redeems himself from the Ring curse by giving them Alberich’s Ring so they can dissolve its curse in the Rhine, transforming it back into pristine Rhinegold. I need to know what if any genealogical musical links there are between S182 and any other motifs or musical tropes in the “Ring”!!!. Dunning traces this quirky motif to a hint or embryo heard in S.2.3 when Siegfried wipes his forehead and is suffering from the heat after having killed Fafner and dragged his body and Mime’s over to Fafner’s cave, just before the Woodbird gives him his final revelation, about Bruennhilde. It is as if Siegfried is receiving a revelation from on high. This quirky motif sounds as if it may be referencing the Woodbird, perhaps Wagner’s music expressing the Woodbird’s fluttering flight as Siegfried’s guide to Bruennhilde.
H#181 = S183 - D omits (Remembrance.) Dunning on different occasions suggested the #Remembrance Motif is a variant of D#139 = S139, or a variation on an inversion of one part of the Rhinedaughters’ second lament for the lost Rhinegold, D#174abc = S181 and S181A, but it seems to me it’s clearly distinct. I need to know what if any genealogical motival links there are between it and other motifs or musical tropes in the “Ring.” Assuming that Scruton’s S183 is identical to the motif I call the Remembrance motif, here are its contexts in the “Ring” libretto, T.3.2: Siegfried: “(S156 = D#154:) I’m thirsty! (:S156). (#Motif of Remembrance:) Hagen: I’ve heard it said you can understand (:#S156) (S129 = D#128b:) the language of birdsong: can it be true (:S129)? (S129)” (…) Hagen: (quietly to Siegfried: S38 = D#42:) If only he [Gunther] understood her [Bruennhilde] (:S38) (#Remembrance Motif:) as you do the singing of birds (:#Remembrance Motif). (…) Hagen: Yet once, you knew what they said? (#Remembrance Motif) Siegfried: Hey, Gunther, woebegone man! (D#152 variant) (S37 = D#41 variant:) If you thank me for it, I’ll sing you tales about my boyhood days (:D#41 variant). [This is the prologue to Siegfried metaphorically performing his play within the play, his metaphor for Wagner’s “Ring” itself, which is his narrative he sings to his audience of Gibichungs of how he came to understand the Woodbird’s songs and therefore his own unconscious mind and source of his art, his muse Bruennhilde]. (…) Siegfried: The dragon’s blood burned my fingers; (S61 = D#66:) to cool them, I raised them (:S61) (#Remembrance Motif variant - [with hint of music heard in “Parsifal” Act Three as Parsifal starts to feel the burden of his sin falling away from him prior to the Good Friday Spell] up to my mouth: the gore had scarcely wet my tongue when all at once I understood what the little birds were singing (:#Remembrance Motif variant).”
H#182 = S184 = D#177ab (Siegfried’s Death.) D#177b seems perhaps to be a variant of the Motif of Siegmund’s Defiance S86 = D#89. Scruton noted that Wotan’s Frustration S76 = D#81 is related to S86 = D#89, so if that’s the case it may also be related to the second segment of S184.
S185 - D omits, but it’s a variant of D#140 (Siegfried, truest of traitors.)
H#183 = S186 - D omits, but S186 is compounded from D#59a = S53A?, D#15 = S14A, D#20c = S18C, D#20d = S18DE, and overlain by D#83 = S79, which is normally compounded of D#53 = S47, D#54 = S48, and D#81A = S76. An embryonic version of this motif, missing several of its parts, is heard as Waltraute tells Bruennhilde how Wotan hoped that Bruennhilde would restore the Ring to the Rhine. Here’s the full context: Waltraute: “(D#81/D#164:) To his [Wotan’s] breast I pressed myself, weeping (:D#81/D#164): (hesitating) his glance grew less harsh; (D#99 voc:) he was thinking, Bruennhilde, of you! Sighing deeply, he closed his eye and, as in a (:D#99) (D#15:) dream, whispered the words (:D#15) (D#19:) ‘If she gave back the (D#37 voc:) ring to the deep Rhine’s daughters (:D#19; #37 voc), (D#51 voc:) from the weight of the curse (:D#51 voc) (D#15 seems to merge with D#20c:) both god and world would be freed (:D#15/D#20c).’ “ This highly compressed compound motif is heard in its definitive form as Bruennhilde sings to the distant Wotan at the finale of “Twilight of the Gods: “Rest! Rest! You god!” It’s earliest embryo may, according to Allen Dunning, occur in V.2.2 just before Wotan’s confession to Bruennhilde, in the following passage: “Bruennhilde: (very quietly: D#25 voc major frag:) To Wotan’s will you speak when you tell me what you will (:D#25 voc major frag): (#?: - [Dunning notes chord changes here suggest D#59a and D#15, somewhat resembling those that occur in T.3.3 when Bruennhilde sings to Wotan “Ruhe! Ruhe!”]) who am I if not your will (:#? - [possibly chord changes hinting at D#15 and D#59a?])? Wotan: (very quietly) What in words I reveal to no one, let it stay unspoken for ever: with myself I commune when I speak with you.”
General Discussion about Wagner and The Ring of the Nibelung
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