COMPARISON OF SIR ROGER SCRUTON’S "RING OF THE NIBELUNG" MOTIF LIST FROM "THE RING OF TRUTH," WITH DR. ALLEN DUNNING’S MOTIF LIST FROM PAUL HEISE’S ONLINE BOOK "THE WOUND THAT WILL NEVER HEAL" AT http://WWW.WAGNERHEIM.COM. "H#" identifies motifs in my new and improved motif list, “S” identifies examples of Scruton’s numbered list of 186 motifs, and “D#” identifies examples of Dunning’s numbered list of 177 motifs, which I employed in study of the "Ring" posted here at http://www.wagnerheim.com.
H#1 = S1 = D#1 (Primal Nature Motif)
H#2 = S2AB = D#3; D#2 (Rhine River and Primal Nature Motif)
H#3 = S3AB = D#3; D#2 (Rhine River and Primal Nature Motif)
H#4 = S4 = D#4 (Woglinde’s lullabye)
S5: D omits (Rhinedaughters: Flosshilde’s warning)
S6: D omits (Rhine waves)
H#5 = D#6: S omits: Associated with Alberich’s lurching motion; heard again in S.2.3.
H#6 = S7 = D#7 (Alberich’s clumsy wooing.) Basis for D#86 = S83.
H#7 = S8 = D#8 (Wellgunde’s taunt - “Heia! Du Holder!”)
H#8 = S9 = D#5 (Alberich’s distress - “Wehe, ach, wehe!”)
D#9: S omits: D#9 should be omitted; not heard again and no conceptual weight.
H#? = S10: D omits (The rape taunt) Should Heise add S10?.
D#10: S omits: D#10 should be omitted; not heard again and no conceptual weight.
H#? = S11: D omits (Alberich’s cry “Fing’ eine diese Faust!” - variation of S10; should Heise add S11?)
H#9 = S12 = D#11 (shimmering of sun in water: a Motion of Nature)
H#10 = S13 = D#12 (The Rhinegold Motif)
H#11 = S14B = D#13 (The Rhinedaughters’ cry of “Heiajaheia! Heiajaheia!”)
H#12 = S14A = D#15 (The Rhinedaughters’ cry of “Rhinegold! Rhinegold!”
H#13 = S15 = D#14 (Rhinedaughters’ swimming)
H#14 = D#16: S omits?: The Rhinedaughters’ song and dance of joy celebrating the Rhinegold, heard again several times in the “Ring”: A true motif - Scruton should include it.
H#15 = S16A = D#17 (The world’s mastery) This motif, which evolves into the Ring Motif S16B and ultimately into S18AB, the first two segments of the Valhalla Motif, evolves quite naturally out of a passage from the Rhinedaughters’ song and dance of joy celebrating the Rhinegold, but I don’t think specifically from D#16.)
H#16ab = S16B = D#19 (The Ring Motif)
H#17 = S17 = D#18 (Existential Choice Motif - so-called Renunciation Motif. Unlike the natural and fluent evolution from joyful Rhinedaughter singing into S16A and further into S19 and S20AB, S17 is starkly contrasted with its immediate musical environment like a portentous signpost.)
H#18abcde = S18ABCDEFG subsumes D#20abcde (The Valhalla Motif)
H#19 = S19 = D#21 (Wotan’s Spear of Divine Authority and Law)
H#20 = S20 = D#22 (Love’s longing for fidelity)
H#21 = S21 = D#23 (Domestic Bliss Motif) This motif will convey Siegfried’s aesthetic arrest prior to his kissing Bruennhilde awake, as he surveys the setting in which she sleeps on her mountaintop and the sky above; at its inception it reflects Fricka’s hope that Wotan would remain content in Valhalla and not wander from her figuratively and literally; unlike Fricka, Bruennhilde’s love inspires Siegfried to undertake adventures outside their home.
H#22 = S22A = D#24 (S22A - Freia’s gift of erotic love in its sensual aspect) One problem is that S22A is associated in V.2.4 with Bruennhilde’s description of the blissful services Siegmund would receive in Valhalla from wishmaids after his death, presumably by Wotan’s Valkyrie daughters, including Bruennhilde herself, and Valkyries are chaste.
H#23 = S22B = D#25 (S22B - Freia’s gift of erotic love in its devoted and tragic aspect)
H#24ab = S23 = D#26ab (The Giants Fasolt and Fafner)
H#25 = S24AB = D#27 (Fasolt’s demand that Wotan keep faith with his contracts, and his remark to Wotan: ‘What you are, you are only through contracts.”) Dunning describes D#27 as the foundation of the family of Motifs associated with cunning and lying - Loge’s and Mime’s - which produces D#36 = S33, D#44, D#101, and D#116 = S116. S omits D#44 and D#101, presumably because he considers them only variants of D#36.
H#26 = S25 = D#28 (Treaty Motif, based on S19 = D#21)
H#27 = S26AB = D#29 (Motif of Freia’s Golden Apples) of sorrowless youth eternal; Scruton notes S26 is derived from the Valhalla Motif’s first two segments. I should incorporate this into my study. Feuerbach notes that the essence of godhead is immortality.
H#28 = S27 = D#30ab (Godhead lost) Fafner tells Fasolt the gods will pass away if they must forego Freia’s golden apples of immortality. Dunning notes that #D30b is the basis for Bruennhilde’s Magical Sleep Motif D#97 = S98, which also includes Ring Motif D#19 harmony; Cooke linked D#97 with one of Loge’s motifs. Scruton suggests A27 is a prolongation of S26B, Loge’s ironical diminished version of S26A.
H#29 = S28 = D#31 (Froh’s Motif, a variant of Freia’s golden apples of sorrowless youth eternal motif D#29)
H#30 = S29 = D#32ab (Donner’s Motif) D#32b is a basis for Wotan’s storm which harasses Siegmund in V.1.1, and which is also related to Wotan’s Spear Motif D#21.
H#31 = S30 = D#33ab (Two Loge motifs, D#33a ascending, D#33b descending.)
H#32 = S31 = D#34 (the fire god Loge’s flames)
H#33 = S32 = D#35 (Magic Fire) Loge’s deceptions: basis not only of D#100 magic fire, but significantly of the two Tarnhelm Motifs D#42 and D#43, and Hagen’s Potions (love, forgetfulness, remembrance), D#154.
H#34 = S33 = D#36 (Wotan: “You don’t know Loge’s art.” Called the Brooding or Scheming motif.) Cooke derives it from the Ring Motif D#19. This influences its harmony, but Dunning traces it also to D#27, i.e., S23AB, first heard as Fasolt expresses his fear that Wotan won’t honor his contract, which of course he won’t thanks to Loge’s promise to redeem him from having to.
H#35 = S34 = D#37 (Motif of Woman’s Worth/powerlessness.) A segment of the existential choice motif S17. Conceptually its total motival dramatic profile suggests a motival symbol of the Fall, paradise lost.
H#36 = S35 = D#38 (Nature weaving motif) prelude to Loge’s beautiful narrative about the necessity of love to life, and his inability to find any living being - save Alberich - who would forego love. Heard again as the prelude to Siegfried’s forest murmurs, and in variant form during Wotan’s S.3.1 confrontation with Erda.
H#37 = S36A = D#39 (Diminution of S22B = D#25) The portion of Freia’s motif which produces the various iterations of the basic love motif of the “Ring.”
H#38 = S36B = D#40 (Augmentation of S22B = D#25) The portion of Freia’s motif which produces the various iterations of the basic love motif of the “Ring.”
H#39 = S37 = D#41 (Nibelung Smithing Motif; related, though S says perhaps not significantly to S14B, the Rhinedaughters’ “Heiajaheia.”) I suspect Cooke correctly drew attention to this motival link, because S14A, the Rhinedaughter’s “Rhinegold! Rhinegold!” similarly is mutated into a Nibelung form, as in D#45 - the so-called Power of the Ring Motif - and D#161, Hagen’s Watch Motif. Cooke offered a psychogical explanation for this. I note that the Rhinedaughters’ song and dance of joy celebrating the Rhinegold also transforms ultimately into the Ring Motif D#19 via D#17.
H#40 = S37A - D omits: a D#5 variant (The Servitude Motif)
H#41 = S38 = D#42 (The Tarnhelm Motif)
H#42 = S38 = D#43: The Tarnhelm Transformation Motif
H#43 = S106: D omits, but it’s D#5 Servitude Variant (Mime’s Nibelung nature, based on S37 = D#41) But I note that the primary servitude motif, the upper line, is based on S9 = D#5, Alberich’s Woe.
H#44 = D#44 - S omits: The first variant of the Scheming Motif, which Dunning traces back to D#27 via D#36, associated with Mime; a subsequent variant is D#101, and ultimately D#116.
H#45 = S39 = D#45 (The Power of the Ring - S notes it’s an amalgam of S37A = S9, and S14B, i.e., D#5ab, D#15 and D#13)
H#46 = S40 = D#46 (The Nibelung Hoard)
H#47 = D#47 - S omits: Alberich’s Revolt, a basis for Wotan’s Revolt, D#82 = S78, both being essentially inversions of Wotan’s Spear Motif D#21. I suspect Scruton may wish to include this motif, because it’s a legitimate precursor of a motif he does identify, but which has its own conceptual significance, though this is related to that of D#82)
H#48 = S103 - D omits giving it a distinct number, but it’s D#20b/D#33b (so-called Arrogance of Power Motif, a synthesis of Valhalla with Loge, as Scruton says.) Its source is in R.3, in Loge’s interactions with Alberich. I should include it as a distinct motif.)
H#49 = S41 = D#48 (The Dragon or Serpent Motif,) linked to the concept of fear.
D#49 - S omits: (Toad) variant of D#48.
S42 - D omits (S states this accompanies Alberich’s humiliation, but is probably not a motif.) Since I can’t read musical scores, I would need the context within the libretto to identify this music.
H#? = S43 - D omits (Loge’s sarcasm) Again, because I can’t read a score, I need the context within the libretto to identify this music. I suspect it’s the witty, sparkling music to which Loge makes sport of Alberich’s predicament just after Wotan and Loge have hauled him bound back to the meadow before Valhalla. If I remember correctly, that music may have partaken of the so-called Arrogance of Power Motif.)
H#50 = S44 = D#50 (Resentment) Cooke stated it’s a syncopation of Ring Motif D#19 harmony.
H#51 = S45 = D#51 (Alberich’s Curse on the Ring) Cooke showed it’s derived from one segment of the Ring Motif D#19.
H#52 = S46 = D#52 (Motif associated with the curse, important to the prelude to “Siegfried” Act Two.) The portion of his curse on the Ring in which Alberich states those who fall under the Ring’s curse will die, and will fear the inevitable coming of death.
H#53 = S47 = D#53 (Erda’s Motif, based on S2B)
H#54 = S48 = D#54 (Twilight of the Gods Motif, an inversion [approximate, says Dunning] of D#53 = S47)
H#55 = S49 = D#55 (Donner’s thunder: “He da! He da, he do!”)
H#56 = S50 = D#56 (Rainbow Bridge) Part of Motions of Nature family.
H#57ab = S51 = D#57 (Wotan’s great idea: the Sword Motif) It’s extremely significant that this motif is a variant of the Primal Nature Motif D#1 with which the “Ring” begins, prior to the Fall, i.e. prior to Alberich’s forging of the Rhinegold into a Ring of power, and the Ring’s musical transformation into Valhalla: D#19 > D#20ab)
H#58ab = S52 = D#58ab (Wotan’s defiance) “D#58a:) Thus I hail the fortress (:D#58a), (D#58b:) safe from dread and dismay (:D#58b). D#58b becomes important later in its own right, as Siegmund contemplates Wotan’s sword in preparation for pulling it out of Hunding’s house-tree, and is evidently the basis for D#79 = S74, to which Fricka accuses Wotan of having betrayed the gods’ rule for the sake of sinful mortals, the twins Siegmund and Sieglinde. But Wotan recognizes the Volsungs as his potential refuge from the fear and dismay caused by Alberich’s curse on his ring, as potential redeemers of the gods.
H#59abc = S53ABC = D#59abc (The Rhinedaughters’ lament for the lost Rhinegold)
H#60 = S54 = D#60 (Wotan’s storm, the shake of the Spear. S notes it’s based on Wotan’s spear motif D#19), but it’s also based on the second half of Donner’s Motif, D#32b.
H#61 = S55 = D#61 (Donner’s lightning, variation of S49 = D#55)
H#62 = S56 = D#62 (Siegmund; a variant of Wotan’s spear motif D#21)
S57 - D omits (Siegmund’s exhaustion; S suggests it may not be a true motif.)
H#63 = S58 = D#63 (Sieglinde)
H#64 = S59 = D#64 (Love Motif, derived from S22B, second half of Freia’s Motif. Earlier iterations were S36AB = D#39 and D#40, heard during the transition from the meadow before Valhalla to Nibelheim R.1-R.2. Cooke, significantly, traced this whole family of love motifs back to Alberich’s despairing remark “Has the third one, so true, betrayed me as well?” This genealogy can be discerned especially in S36A)
S60 - D omits (Siegmund’s chivalry: “Unheil wende der Wunsch von dir!.” Variation of S58.)
H#65 = D#65 - S omits: Siegmund’s despairing remark: “Ill-fortune follows wherever I flee … .” I believe D#65 is worthy of motif status because of its conceptual significance and the power of its presentation.
H#66 = S61, including S61A = D#66 (The sorrow of the Volsungs) It is sometimes - though not always - associated specifically with Sieglinde’s sympathy for the plight of the Volsungs, but that plight, or “Noth,” is the product of their being the unwitting proxies of Wotan’s bid to have them sacrifice themselves to overcome Alberich’s curse on the Ring and preserve the gods from inevitable destruction.
H#67 = S62 = D#67 (Hunding)
H#68 = S63 = D#68 (Hunding’s demand for Respect; Scruton notes it is associated with the need for respect, even from those who can’t or won’t give it.) I call it Hunding’s Honor. It is a basis for the Oath of Atonement Motif D#159 heard as part of the blood-brotherhood oath Siegfried swears with Gunther in T.1.2. Cooke noted these motifs stem from one half of the Ring Motif D#19.
H#69 = S65 = D#69 (Bride’s lament)
H#70 = S64 = D#70 (Volsung Suffering)
H#71 = S64A = D#71 (the Volsung Race)
S66 - D omits (Octave drop on Siegmund’s cry “Walse!, based on that in S51, Wotan’s great idea, and S52, the Motif of Wotan’s defiance, and associated with Nothung)
H#72 = S67 = D#72 (The triumph of Siegmund and Sieglinde.) If I remember correctly, Cooke and/or Dunning described this as a synthesis of the Valhalla Motif and the Sword Motif.
H#73 = S68 = D#73 (Siegmund’s Love Song - “Liebe und Lenz Lied.”)
S69 - D omits (Sieglinde’s tenderness: variation of S22B)
H#74 = S70AB = D#74ab (Bliss/Longing/Fulfillment)
H#75 = D#75 - S omits Siegmund: “… united are Love and Spring!” D#75 may be worthy of motif status. It occurs several times in the course of Siegmund’s love song in particularly poignant and meaningful contexts, as summations of prior passages, a sort of cadence. It may be an embryo for D#125, one of the “Siegfried Idyll” tunes.
H#76 = S71 = D#76 (Brother and sister remember) This passage from V.1.3 was one of the first that struck me with the impression that in Wagner’s “Ring” I’d discovered a work of art unlike any other. It gave me the shivers and still deeply resonates with me, in much the same way that my first experience of Siegfried’s forest murmurs scene did. Both passages concern the deepest wellsprings of personal and species memory.
H#77 = S73A = D#77 (Ride of the Valkyries Motif)
S73B - D omits (subsidiary Valkyrie Motif)
H#78 = S73BC = D#78 (Bruennhilde’s “Hoyotoho!, etc.)
H#79 = S74 = D#79 (Anger Motif, associated with Fricka) Dunning (and I believe Cooke) traces this motif back to D#58b, the second segment of Wotan’s salute to his fortress or refuge from night - the as yet unnamed Valhalla - in which he states that in this fortress he salutes, the gods will be secure from dread and dismay. It is not only the heroes Wotan has his Valkyrie daughters inspire to martyrdom and collect after death in Valhalla who are to secure Valhalla from dread and dismay, but specifically his race of Volsung heroes who Wotan hopes will redeem Valhalla from the dread and dismay inspired by Alberich’s curse on his Ring and his threat that he will storm Valhalla with his hosts of night when his hoard rises from the silent night to day. This Nibelung hoard is also Wotan’s hoard of knowledge of the earth (Erda) he collects as Wanderer, Wagner’s metaphor for collective, historical man. Wotan distinguishes his martyred heroes gathered in Valhalla from the Volsung heroes in this way: in his V.2.2 confession to Bruennhilde he says that so long as Alberich hasn’t regained his Ring, Wotan’s martyred heroes gathered in Valhalla will protect him, but if Alberich regains his Ring all is lost, so the Volsung heroes specifically are tasked with retrieving Alberich’s Ring from Fafner to keep it out of Alberich’s hands.
H#80 = S75 = D#80 (Fricka’s indictment. A variation of S22B = D#25)
H#81 = S76A = D#81A (Wotan’s Frustration. Derived from the Spear Motif S19 = D#21.) Basis of D#137 = S136 & #136A, and D#164 = S169.
H#82 = S76B = D#81B (Wotan’s frustration; the Spear in pieces.) S76B is specifically associated with Wotan’s punishment of Bruennhilde for disobeying him, for acting on Wotan’s wish or feeling rather than on his knowledge.
H#83 = S78 = D#82 (Wotan’s Revolt or Despair. S notes that the chord on which it ends looks forward to “Twilight of the Gods.”) S78 is more or less an inversion of Wotan’s Spear Motif D#21, and Dunning traces it back to a motif he identifies as Alberich’s Revolt D#47 (S omitted), which expressed Alberich’s threat towards the gods’ rule in R.3.
H#84 = S79 = D#83 (The Need of the Gods. Scruton notes the second segment is based on S76A = D#81.) Cooke and Dunning find three components in this compound motif, the first part derived from D#53 Erda and D#54 Twilight of the Gods, and the second part from D#81 Wotan’s Frustration. The Need of the Gods, of course, is for Wotan and the gods to somehow escape the gods’ doom, which is to be brought to pass by Alberich’s curse on his Ring and specifically following from Hagen’s birth, which Erda foretold. Wotan introduced this motif when he noted only a hero freed from the gods’ law could redeem the gods from this doom.
H#85 = S80 - D omits, but it’s a D#20ab variant [Valhalla] (Wotan’s first Bequest) plus D#12 [Rhinegold]. S omits D#12 from this compound motif. Wotan’s first bequest is to the as-yet unborn son of Alberich, Hagen, whose birth, according to Erda, will eventually bring about the twilight of the gods. Wotan makes Hagen heir in despair, until he sees that Siegfried’s loving relationship with Bruennhilde might offer redemption from Alberich’s curse on his Ring, which Erda has foreseen Hagen will fulfill. In my interpretation the alternative to Hagen’s rule - that of science - after the decaying of religious faith, is redemptive secular art, Wagnerian music-drama, represented by the loving union of Siegfried the artist-hero with his muse of unconscious artistic inspiration Bruennhilde.
H#86 = S81 = D#84 (Wotan’s anger: first motif) Dunning locates an embryo for this motif in Wotan’s confession to Bruennhilde that he can’t create a free hero because he finds, with loathing, only always himself in all that he undertakes - i.e., all his machinations to secure the gods’ redemption from inevitable doom through a free hero. Wagner told a friend that Wotan’s anger at Bruennhilde is actually Wotan’s anger at himself.)
H#87 = S82 = D#85 (Wotans anger: second motif).
H#88 = S83 = D#86 (Hunding’s pursuit.) Dunning argues that this is a variant of D#7 = S7, the motif which expresses the futility and clumsiness of Alberich’s attempt to woo the Rhinedaughters, as he slips and slides on the rocks in the Rhine. Both Alberich and Hunding are trying to coerce love, i.e., lovelessly.
H#89 = S84 = D#87 (Fate Motif)
H#90 = S85 = D#88 (The Annunciation of Death Motif.) Dunning found an embryo for D#88 in Wotan’s description of how Erda gave birth to their daughter Bruennhilde.
H#91 = S86 = D#89 (Siegmund’s Resistance) - to the fate Bruennhilde announced, and to having to separate himself from Sieglinde. (S notes interestingly that it seems related to S76 = D#81, the Motif of Wotan’s frustration.) I also note a family resemblance to D#177b = S184, the second part of the motif associated with Siegfried’s death introduced in T.3.2. Perhaps D#81 = S76 is also an influence on D#177b = S184.
S87 - D omits (Sieglinde’s dream: borrowed from Liszt’s “Faust Symphony”) Faust motif from first “Faust” movement.
H#? = S88 - D omits (Wotan’s grief/brooding). Not being able to read a score I’m not sure of libretto context for the occurrence of this music. I imagine it must occur during Wotan’s brooding over the killing of his son Siegmund by Hunding which Wotan’s despairing intervention brought to pass.
H#92 = S72 = D#91 (Valkyrie Ride Motif)
H#93 = S89 = D#92abc (Siegfried as hero). When S89 is introduced, it is introduced in this way: D#92ab, D#92ac. There is a final cadential segment which is isolated and becomes important as a separate motif later in the “Ring,” D#92c, and I believe it is to this brief snippet of melody that Bruennhilde sings her last words to Siegfried as she’s plunging with Grane into his funeral pyre. It’s also, I believe, heard as a sort of cadence to D#134 = S134, Wagner’s redemption motif, introduced in S.3.1 as Wotan announces that he now wills his own end because his heirs Siegfried and Bruennhilde will redeem the world from Alberich’s curse on the Ring.
H#94 = S90 = D#93 (Sieglinde’s blessing of Bruennhilde) for her compassionate intervention to aid the Volsungs, including the as-yet-unborn Siegfried; sometimes called the Redemption Motif.
H#95 - S91 - D omits (Wotan’s Reproach to Bruennhilde. “Wunsch-maid warst du mir: gegen mich doch hast du gewuenscht!”) I originally wished to include this repeated musical phrase among the motifs, since it does indeed musically express Wotan’s sequence of reproaches of Bruennhilde, but Dunning disagreed. I may restore it as a motif.
H#? = S92 - D omits but S92 = D#81 plus D#88 (Wotan’s judgment: S76 and S85 combined in sequence to make a new melody.) If I’m thinking of the same melody, I suspect I originally described this motif as an urgent variant of D#88.
H#96 = S93 = D#95 (Valkyrie Fugue, from S85.) Dunning describes it as a synthesis of D#88 and D#92, I believe.
S94 - D omits (Bruennhilde faces judgment. S93 = D#95 slowed down and brought to closure.)
H#97 = D#94 - S omits: Scruton should definitely include D#94 in his list. Here’s the full context in which it’s introduced in V.3.2: “Bruennhilde: Will you take away all that you ever gave me? Wotan: He who subdues you will take it away! [this may be an oblique reference to the hoard of knowledge, Wotan’s unspoken secret, which he confessed to Bruennhilde, and to which Siegfried falls heir.] (D#5 = S9: [a sort of Servitude Motif variant which expresses alarm, heard in S.3.2 when Wotan warns Siegfried away from Bruennhilde’s rock, saying his ravens have scared Siegfried’s Woodbird guide away]) (D#96A embryo = S95:) Here on the mountain I’ll lay you under a spell; (D#94 vocal:) in shelterless sleep I’ll shut you fast … .” D#94 is associated both with Bruennhilde’s shelterless sleep, i.e., Wotan’s punishment, and with his ravens. Bruennhilde will sing a variant of #94 in the finale of “Twilight” when she calls on Wotan’s ravens to tell him what has transpired on the Rhine.
H#98AB = S95A = D#96A, & S95 = D#96B (Bruennhilde’s reproach, followed by Bruennhilde’s pleading/purity. Derived by octave displacement from the Spear Motif S19 = D#21)
S96 - D omits (Bruennhilde’s gentle response to Wotan’s anguish: derived from S76 = D#81.) I will need the libretto context to be able to identify this music and that of S97 and S97A specifically.
S97 - D omits (variation of S96)
S97A - D omits (growing out of S97)
H#99 = S98 = D#97 (Bruennhilde’s Magic Sleep Motif) Dunning notes the embryo for D#97 is the second segment of the Godhead Lost Motif, #30b = S27. Cooke finds its source in one of Loge’s motifs. Dunning noted that it includes the Ring Motif’s D#19 harmony.
H#100 = S99 = D#98 (Bruennhilde’s appeal to Wotan) to protect her defenseless, sleeping self from being woken and won by just any man; she insists Wotan frighten off anyone but a fearless hero. (Scruton notes it’s widely known as the sleeping Bruennhilde motif, or sleeping nature motif, on account of its subsequent use.) Cooke noted this is a pentatonic melody akin to Woglinde’s lullabye D#4 and its variant the Woodbird tune D#129.)
General Discussion about Wagner and The Ring of the Nibelung
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